You are here:

Cranford agreement

Implementing runway alternation on easterly operations (legacy of the Cranford Agreement)

What is the Cranford Agreement?

Runway alternation currently only happens on westerly operations (when aircraft come into land over London and take off towards Windsor). This is because of the legacy of the ‘Cranford Agreement’ which was established in the 1950s. Cranford is a village at the eastern end of the northern runway (as illustrated below). The agreement prevented aircraft from taking off over the village except in exceptional circumstances and applied when Heathrow was on easterly operations.

Cranford Agreement


For arrivals, this means that on easterly operations, the vast majority of arriving aircraft will land on the northern runway, with the vast majority of departures only taking off from the southern runway.

The agreement favoured residents of Cranford at the expense of other communities such as Windsor and southern parts of Hounslow.

Has the Cranford Agreement ended?

In 2008, the Government consulted with local residents about the Cranford Agreement. After reviewing the results of the consultation, they announced that the agreement should end in 2009.

In 2010, the then Government confirmed that the Cranford Agreement should be removed, and that Heathrow should take the necessary steps to implement easterly alternation as soon as possible to ensure a fairer distribution of noise when operating on easterlies.

Heathrow submitted a planning application to the London Borough of Hillingdon in 2013 to construct an additional taxiway at the western end of the northern runway to enable full runway alternation on easterly operations. This would bring into effect the ending of the Cranford Agreement.

Planning permission for the application we made in 2013 was granted on appeal by the Secretary of State on 2 February 2017. However, on the same day the Government published the draft Airports National Policy Statement which supported the expansion of Heathrow. The NPS has now been formally designated. The airfield design for an expanded Heathrow means we need to reposition the taxiway works. This requires a new planning application and we intend to pursue this work through the planning process for expansion.

What permission is needed to implement runway alternation on easterly alternation?

There are two different processes we need to go through in order to implement easterly alteration:

  • Planning process for the required taxiway works – this is being pursued through the planning process for expansion (known as a Development Consent Order)
  • Change in use of flight paths – this will be pursued through the Civil Aviation Authority’s Airspace Change Process. However, this is separate to the overall airspace change for airspace modernisation.

When will runway alternation on easterly operations be introduced?

We plan to submit our Development Consent Order (DCO) in 2020 with consent expected in 2021. We will then move ahead as quickly as possible following DCO consent to build the necessary taxiway infrastructure – we expect this to take around two years, and so easterly runway alternation could be introduced by late 2023/early 2024.

Alongside this, we will also be required to go through the CAA’s Airspace Change Process to seek approval to change the distribution of flights (i.e. regular departures from the northern runway and regular arrivals on the southern runway) that will result from introducing runway alternation on easterly alternation. In addition to this, we will also need to implement Independent Parallel Approaches (IPA) to the northern runway on easterly alternation. More information on IPA can be found here.

Indicative timeline – introduction of runway alternation on easterly operations

  • Airport Expansion Consultation June (2019)
  • DCO submission (2020)
  • DCO decision (2021)
  • Easterly runway alternation (late 2023/early 2024)


Track flights

Airport map

Follow recent flights over your area with WebTrak.