Luxembourg-Ville travel guide
In the early morning mist Luxembourg is reminiscent of an ancient fairytale city, full of towers and turrets. The old centre of town, which has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, can trace its history back to the 10th century, when Siegfried, Count of the Ardennes, built a castle on a rock above the Alzette River. He named the castle Lucilinburhuc. Over the centuries the castle and surrounding town was strengthened with numerous additional fortifications, walls and gates until it became known as the 'Gibraltar of the North'. Today the various components of the fortress are the city's chief tourist attraction. There are some other interesting sights in the old centre of town though, including several museums.
Modern Luxembourg, on the Plateau du Krichberg, is more concerned with business than pleasure, as the work of a major international financial centre goes on inside the many modern office complexes in the city. Luxembourg is chock full of banks and is home to numerous European Union institutions. The European Council of Ministers holds their sessions in the city for three months every year, and the European Court of Justice presides here too. Although tourists come to the city to enjoy the medieval charm and history, the financial prestige attracts businessmen and the modern buzz of the place ensures that there are good restaurants and lots of quality hotels. Luxembourg is a tiny country and there are many wonderful excursions from the city into the countryside and to surrounding towns.
The mighty fortress established by Count Siegfried atop the Rock of Bock in 963 eventually became a citadel with three girdles of battlements, the inner one fortified with bastions, and the other two containing a total of 24 forts along their length. As the centuries passed the stone cliff foundations underneath the castle were excavated to form a network of 14 miles (23km) of underground tunnels, called casemates, where thousands of soldiers could shelter and workshops for artillery and arms, kitchens, bakeries and slaughter-houses could be housed. The fortress saw many sieges and battles, until 1867 when the Treaty of London declared that it be demolished. Despite this, several sections of the fortress still remain, and the subterranean casements are open for viewing. Visitors can also enjoy a sound and light tour on the history of the castle. The best way to view the remaining parts of the fortifications is on foot, strolling through the cobbled streets of the old town, armed with a map from the tourist office (on the Place d'Armes). Although the casements officially open in March, they have been known to open later in the year without any warning; visitors are advised to check whether they are open before visiting.
Grand Ducal Palace
The city residence of the Grand Ducal family is right in the
heart of the old town, and is surprisingly unpretentious,
recognisable more by the fact that there are sentry boxes and
determined looking guards outside, than for any other feature. The
building is, however, aesthetically very pleasing, with an Italian
Renaissance facade. It is built of ochre yellow stone and features
spires and railings, overlooking a paved pedestrian square. It was
originally the site of a medieval town hall that was destroyed by a
gunpowder explosion in 1554, and rebuilt 20 years later. Those with
an eye for architecture will be able to tell that the palace was
built over various periods - much of the structure dates back to
the 16th century, although an annex to the building was built in
1859 and is now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies.
Guided tours are usually available in the peak summer months, by arrangement with the Luxembourg City Tourist Office, but for the majority of the year the palace can't be explored by visitors and is simply an interesting landmark to pass by and photograph, particularly as it is situated in such a pleasant part of town.
Address: 17, rue du Marché-aux-Herbes
The National Museum for History and Art
This museum was recently substantially refurbished and contains some major archaeological finds from Luxembourg including artefacts from the Gallo-Roman period and the Middle Ages, which are displayed in underground galleries. The collection covers the history of Luxembourg since the first evidence of human habitation, and it is vast, covering a wide array of topics. Exhibitions of fine arts, modern art, medieval artefacts, coins, medals and arms are all on display. The collection also includes exhibits on local culture and folklore, and interesting photographs demonstrating how the city has changed through the decades. The museum regularly hosts workshops and other events and displays temporary exhibitions covering a wide range of topics. There is a cafe at the museum for refreshments and during summer it has a sunny terrace for guests to enjoy. There is also a small gift shop for mementoes and souvenirs.
Luxembourg-Ville, or Luxembourg City as it is often called, has a UNESCO-listed Old Town and a fairytale, medieval charm which draws visitors. The main attractions in Luxembourg include the remains of the Bock Fortress, particularly the subterranean casements, the Grand Ducal Palace, the Philharmonie Luxembourg, which offers a wonderful selection of concerts and performances, the National Museum for History and Art, and the Passerelle or Luxembourg Viaduct, a bridge built in 1861 which affords incredible views of the city. The smallness of the country is an advantage for travellers because almost all places of interest to sightseers are within reach from the capital, allowing for a variety of fun excursions. It takes no more than a quick drive or train trip to reach any number of picturesque ancient villages nestled among Luxembourg's lovely countryside. Some of the most popular daytrip destinations are Clervaux, Echternach, Mondorf-Les-Bains, Vianden, Remich and Grevenmacher. Another well-known attraction near the city is the American Cemetery and Memorial which commemorates the soldiers killed during World War II and is a moving site.
The best time to visit the city, and indeed the rest of the country, is in the sunny, comparatively warm months between May and August (spring and summer), as Luxembourg-Ville can get a bit bleak and cold during winter.
Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial
In a silent forest clearing near the village of Hamm, a few
miles east of Luxembourg City, lie the graves of more than 5,000
American soldiers killed during World War II, when the Grand Duchy
of Luxembourg became a battleground in the Allies' last bid for
victory on the Western Front. One of the graves is that of the
legendary commander, General George Patton, who died in a traffic
accident just after the war. There is a striking central monument
to the dead, and some maps detailing the Allied progress through
Europe. There are also lists of those who went missing during the
war and were never found.
The cemetery has become a place of pilgrimage and homage, and is immaculately maintained by members of the American Battle Monuments' Commission. The lines of white crosses are a sobering and moving sight and the cemetery will be of interest to anybody with an appreciation for military history, and for patriotic Americans. Unlike many cemeteries the world over, the Luxembourg American Cemetery closes each day at 5pm. Not far away, at the village of Sandwieler, is a German war cemetery with some 10,000 graves. While the American Cemetery glorifies the sacrifice of its soldiers, the German equivalent gives more of a sense of the horror and futility of war.
The picturesque village of Vianden, situated on the banks of the Our River and guarded by a magnificent restored medieval castle, makes a pleasant day trip as it is conveniently only 25 miles (40km) north of the city of Luxembourg. The castle dates back to the 9th century and was originally the home of the counts of Vianden, powerful nobles until the 13th century. The ruined castle was restored in the 1980s and now houses a museum that recaptures life in the Middle Ages and recounts the area's troubled history. In the small town below visitors can sip tangy Moselle wines beside the stream while enjoying the views of the green hills. The village has been delighting tourists for more than a century, and strolling around the narrow cobbled streets beneath towers and medieval ramparts feels like stepping back through time. The surroundings of the town are also magnificent and there are many pretty walking trails to be explored using Vianden as a base. Indian Forest also offers fun and thrilling high rope and zip-line courses for the whole family, which allow visitors to traverse the forest canopies. There is plenty of quality accommodation and some lovely restaurants to enjoy in town.
In the heart of the Ardennes Mountain region, about 30 miles
(50km) north of Luxembourg City, the village of Clervaux is
overlooked by a 12th-century castle, a Romanesque church with twin
spires, and a large Benedictine monastery. The castle houses three
small museums, including one that features a collection of World
War II memorabilia from the Battle of the Bulge that was fought in
the region. Another room is dedicated to the Luxembourg Holocaust
victims, its walls lined with mementoes of Luxembourgers who died
in concentration camps. The castle is the town's most famous
attraction, but it has been known to close without notice so it is
best to confirm it is open before making the trip, if it is the
reason for your visit. Behind the castle a road leads uphill to the
St Maurice Abbey, built in 1910, where the Benedictine monks
sometimes hold Gregorian chant concerts. There is a church service
every morning at 10.30am at the abbey.
The town is picturesque and has numerous appealing restaurants and cafes, as well as good hotels. It also has a charming little shopping district and is fun to stroll around. Clervaux is easily accessible by train, which is a bonus for those who have not rented cars, and is a popular excursion from the capital. Two days will be more than enough to explore the little town and its attractions.
The beautiful town of Echternach lies on the border between
Germany and Luxembourg on the banks of the Sûre River, and is
widely acknowledged as the oldest town in the country. It boasts a
famed abbey, founded in the 7th-century by St Willibrord, whose
remains are contained in a magnificent white marble sarcophagus in
the crypt of the Basilica. There are also three museums in the
town, one dedicated to the history of the abbey, another showcasing
ancient artefacts, and a third detailing rural architecture.
Echternach also boasts the remains of an ancient Roman villa which
is thought to have been the largest of its kind north of the Alps.
Apart from these attractions, Echternach is perhaps best known for
its unique annual event: a centuries' old traditional dancing
procession takes place each Whit Tuesday, attracting thousands of
pilgrims and spectators.
Although the charms of the town itself are undeniable, Echternach also attracts visitors because of its stunning natural surroundings. The town is a base for hikers and nature lovers wishing to explore the area known as the Mullerthal, a fascinating landscape of curious sandstone rock formations, waterfalls, creeks, springs and forests. Also known as 'Little Switzerland', this region is criss-crossed with hiking trails and dotted with picturesque villages.
The Moselle Valley is a region in eastern Luxembourg that has
been promoted as a wine-growing region since the 19th century and
has developed an important tourist industry around its renown as a
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg shares with Germany the wide, navigable Moselle River, tributary of the Rhine. Along the riverbanks are vineyards that produce a wine which connoisseurs rate as among the best in Europe. A wine tour through the quiet villages and wine cellars of the region is a scenic and relaxing experience.
The principal town of Luxembourg's Moselle wine growing region, Grevenmacher, is linked to the German bank of the river by a bridge. It is an old town with narrow streets, the remains of medieval fortifications, and a 13th-century Belfry. The town's claim to fame is the wine cellars of Caves Bernard-Massard, whose sparkling wines are internationally acclaimed. The cellars are open daily for tastings from April to October. There is a small museum in the town, and an exotic butterfly garden. Grevenmacher is also an embarkation point for regular scenic river cruises on the Moselle, which call at other quaint villages in the region.
In the Moselle region in the southeast of Luxembourg, nestling
in the hills, lies the spa town of Mondorf-les-Bains, where
thousands of visitors come on holiday every year to enjoy the
verdant surroundings and thermal springs of what is billed as one
of the most modern balneotherapy centres in Europe. The town is
actually very old, established by the Celts and conquered by the
Romans in about 65 BC; the settlement has frequently been attacked
and destroyed in its long history, but has endured.
The Mondorf-les-Bains holiday resort consists of a thermal park set in 50 hectares of parkland, offering a variety of sports facilities and a balneotherapy pavilion with saunas, swimming pools, waterfalls, whirlpools and geysers. The hot springs are said to be particularly good for the treatment of liver, gastric and respiratory ailments. Visitors can also be pampered with massages and mud baths among other things.
There is a casino in the town and historical and architectural attractions include some interesting frescoed churches, a Roman fortress and some Art Nouveau-style houses to visit while on holiday. The spa town has plenty of luxury accommodation and some great restaurants. Those visitors who feel the need to shop while on holiday won't be disappointed.
Luxembourg-Findel International Airport
Location: The airport is located four miles (6km) east of Luxembourg city.
Time: GMT +1 (GMT +2 from last Sunday in March to last Sunday in October).
Contacts: Tel: +352 24 64 1. Flight Information: +352 4798 5050.
Getting to the city: Bus routes 29, 16 and 117 connect the airport to the city centre; there is no rail connection, but a station is currently under construction to link the airport to the city.
Car rental: Car hire firms Avis, Budget and Sixt are represented at the airport.
Airport Taxis: Taxis are available from the airport; an average fare to the city centre is a minimum of €30.
Facilities: Airport facilities include information desks, ATMs, banks and foreign exchanges, VIP services, meeting rooms and business lounges, nurseries, disabled facilities, smoking areas, a lost and found, a photobooth, and a variety of shopping and dining options.
Parking: Underground parking is available. The first 15 minutes is free, then charged at €1.50-€2.50 per additional 15 mins, €20-€65 for the first day and €10-€65 per additional day.
Departure tax: None.
Luxembourg is a tiny country, and it is possible to get essentially anywhere in less than an hour. Bus services are excellent within Luxembourg City, and most routes pass through the central bus station, making it easy to get to most places. A standard ticket is €2, while a day pass is €4. The buses also travel out to villages like Junglinster, Mersch, Trier, and Wasserbillig. Bus tickets are also valid on the train network, which is relatively comprehensive throughout the country and connects to destinations in Germany and Belgium. Renting a car in Luxembourg is also an option as local drivers are known to be polite and the road system is well-developed. Parking can be difficult to find on weekends in Luxembourg City.
Nestling behind the barrier of the Ardennes Mountains, Luxembourg City is protected from the cold North Sea winds and therefore has a temperate maritime climate. Summers are mild and pleasant, and winters cool to cold. The warmest months of the year are between May and September, but even at the height of summer Luxembourg City is seldom hot, with temperatures averaging 74°F (24°C). Visitors in the summer should anticipate a noticeable drop in temperature at night. In winter (November to February) temperatures average 32°F (0°C), with more extreme winter weather in the northern reaches of the country, which also receive more rain. Spring (March to May) is a beautiful season in Luxembourg City as the mountains and valleys come alive with wild flowers. The best time of year to visit Luxembourg City is in the spring and summer, between May and September, when the weather is pleasant and outdoor activities are plentiful and popular. Tourists generally avoid winter, which can be dismal, but the country does have some lovely Christmas markets over December.
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