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    Natives of the Commonwealth of Virginia are enormously proud of their local history and have put a great deal of effort into preserving their historical landmarks, homes and public buildings. The bountiful land of Virginia is where the first permanent English colonists put down roots, founding the town of Jamestown in 1607. They originally stepped ashore on a sandy beach at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, a large estuary that became their gateway to the scenic hinterland.

    Following the rivers inland, the early pioneers found rolling hills and the beautiful Blue Ridge Mountains towering over valleys in the western part of the state. Today, 400 years later, a great deal of Virginia's wilderness areas remain pristine and untouched, making it the perfect destination for lovers of the outdoors, as well as for those intent on discovering some living history.

    Virginia has not just preserved its historic relics, it uses them as settings for living historical displays. Historic parks and some entire towns like Williamsburg act as time machines to transport visitors to a bygone age, where bewigged gentlemen stroll the streets and craftsmen ply their trades along cobblestone streets.

    The state has also preserved numerous battlefields and monuments associated with the Civil War, with its capital, Richmond, being the seat of the Confederacy. Many of Virginia's sons have played a vital role in politics during the centuries: the state has produced eight United States Presidents, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, whose homes are open to the public.

    Even Virginia's popular seaside resort city of Virginia Beach is steeped in history, so visitors who come to enjoy the state's many miles of Atlantic Coast sandy beaches cannot help but absorb some of the region's historic importance along with their suntans. Virginia's worth as an enjoyable destination can be proven by the fact that tourism is a main source of state revenue.

    Virginia is steeped in history and visitors to the Old Dominion are spoilt for choice when it comes to taking a look into the past. The state is justifiably proud of its place in American history, having produced eight American presidents. Tourists can explore the homes of two of them at Mount Vernon and Monticello, both top attractions.

    The city draws in many tourists each year, offering world-class museums as well as natural wonders like the Luray Caverns, the Natural Bridge and Shenandoah National Park. Once home to the first English settlers on the continent, Virginia also contains fascinating colonial history, including a number of Civil War battlefields. These are most popularly explored within the Richmond National Battlefield Park while many districts of the colonial capital of Williamsburg have been restored to their 18th century splendour.

    For something less quaint, the state capital Richmond provides wonderful shopping opportunities as well as some great restaurants specialising in local produce and some award-winning wines. Those with a penchant for the outdoors will also find plenty of diversions in Virginia with its many hiking trails and a beautiful shoreline to occupy visitors during the summer months.

    Capitol Square

    Richmond's Capitol Square is an oasis of old trees, statues and green lawns perched on a hilltop in the heart of the downtown area. The magnificent centrepiece is the neoclassical State Capitol building, designed by Thomas Jefferson, which has been in continuous use since 1788. In its rotunda stands a life-sized statue of George Washington, Virginia's most treasured artwork. The Governor's Mansion, home of Virginia governors since 1813, has been restored and contains its original woodwork, plaster cornices and ornamental ceilings, while other historic buildings in the square include the old Bell Tower, dating from 1824 and the neoclassical Old Finance Building.

    Virginia State Capitol Virginia State Capitol Anderskev
    Museum and White House of the Confederacy

    Civil War buffs flock to the Museum of the Confederacy, which houses the most comprehensive collection of Confederate artefacts, personal memorabilia, and art to be found anywhere in the United States. The exhibits include artworks, 550 battle flags and 215 uniforms, including those of well-known officers. Beside the museum is the White House of the Confederacy. Tours are available of the 1818 mansion in which Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his family lived during the Civil War, still furnished with original items.

    Website: www.moc.org
    Museum and the White House of the
Confederacy Museum and the White House of the Confederacy Rifleman 82
    Richmond National Battlefield Park

    Union armies repeatedly set out to capture Richmond, strategic capital of the Confederacy, and end the Civil War. Three of those campaigns came within a few miles of the city. The park commemorates 11 different sites associated with those campaigns, including the battlefields at Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill and Cold Harbor. In 1865, President Abraham Lincoln made a historic visit to the battlefields of Richmond days before his assassination, urging an end to the war. Established in 1936, the park protects 763 acres (308 ha) of historic ground. There is a visitor centre in the Tredegar Iron Works where visitors can watch a film depicting the battles around the city and get information about self-guided tours of the battlefields. There are roughly seven miles (11.2km) of well-maintained walking trails around the battlefields.

    Website: www.nps.gov/rich
    Richmond National Battlefield Park Richmond National Battlefield Park Sarah Stierch
    Virginia Museum of Fine Arts

    Richmond boasts an exceptional Fine Arts Museum, which presents a panorama of world art from ancient to modern, including the largest public Fabergé imperial Easter egg collection outside of Russia, consisting of roughly 150 jewel-encrusted creations made for Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II. The Museum is also home to a collection of English silver, one of the world's leading collections of the art of India, Nepal and Tibet, and six Gobelin Don Quixote tapestries.

    Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Morgan Riley
    St John's Episcopal Church

    St John's Church has stood on Richmond Hill above the James River since 1741, and is known for having been the venue for the second Virginia Convention in 1775, attended by George Washington and other historic personalities. The church is also where legendary Pocahontas was baptised and married to John Rolfe. The wooden building is still home to its original pulpit and some exquisite stained-glass windows. Between May and September, living history performances are given every Sunday recreating the historic Second Virginia Convention. Informative tours explore the historic significance of the church building and grounds.

    St. John's Church St. John's Church Billy Hathorn
    Virginia Science Museum

    The hands-on Virginia Science Museum allows visitors to touch, observe and explore the impact of science on their lives, covering everything from astronomy to computers to flight engineering. Permanent exhibitions include Foucault's Pendulum, Gravity Alley, Electriworks, Watt Wall and the fun Imagination Playground. Live demonstrations are given daily on each level: Level One has programmes aimed at younger children, while the Levels Two and Three demonstrations include animal dissections. Other special events are held regularly, with schedules available on the website. The fascinating and fun museum is complemented by a 275-seat Ethyl Universe Planetarium and Space Theatre that screens Omnimax films on the domed screen, as well as providing multimedia planetarium shows.

    Website: www.smv.org
    Virginia Science Museum Virginia Science Museum David Bjorgen
    The Chrysler Museum of Art

    Originally founded in 1933, the Chrysler Museum of Art is located on the waters of The Hague, in the Ghent district of Norfolk, and is home to the art collection of Walter P. Chrysler Jr. Over time it has increased its collection significantly and is one of Norfolk's most esteemed attractions. The museum is family-friendly and kids especially will love the Daniel Rozin interactive installation.

    Website: www.chrysler.org
    Chrysler Museum of Art Chrysler Museum of Art Gosscj
    Nauticus

    Nauticus is a must-see for families on holiday in Norfolk. This maritime-themed science centre and museum now stands where Norfolk's banana pier once stood and features exhibits, interactive theatres and shark touch tanks, as well as a weather station. Open since 1994, the museum is a popular educational attraction in Norfolk for anyone interested in learning about America's maritime history. The AEGIS Command Center allows visitors to experience naval battles first-hand, and Secrets of the Deep lets you to practise gathering samples from the ocean floor with a nine-foot robotic arm. Nauticus is also home to the USS Wisconsin battleship and the Schooner Virginia, an additional interest for mariners and vacationers alike.

    Website: www.nauticus.org
    Nauticus Nauticus Ewelch1

    Phrase Book

    English Pronounciation

    The Virginia climate is a coastal one, mild and humid, with the four seasons experienced slightly differently in the different regions. The Tidewater regions, where Virginia's major rivers drain into the Chesapeake, are low-lying and experience more moderate temperatures, with warm to hot summers and mild winters.

    As one moves westward and altitudes increase, temperatures tend to drop and winters tend to be far colder, particularly in the more mountainous regions and the northeastern areas, with heavy snowfall in the Appalachians. Summers, however, tend to also be mild and pleasant, and the average summer temperature statewide is close to 80°F (27°C). Winter temperatures in January, usually the coldest month, are usually about 30°F (-1°C).

    Severe weather, including tornadoes, tropical cyclones, hurricanes and winter storms, impacts the state on a regular basis. There is an average of seven tornadoes per year in western Virginia, most occurring between May and August. Hurricanes striking coastal Virginia tend to be on the decline as they come north from the Gulf of Mexico, and flooding from torrential rains is the biggest concern.

    Richmond International Airport
    Location: The airport is situated nine miles (14km) southeast of Richmond.
    Time: GMT -5 (GMT -4 from mid-March to the first Sunday in November).
    Getting to the city: The Greater Richmond Transit Company (GRTC) offers public buses to Richmond. Taxi, shuttle, and limousine services are also available outside the baggage reclaim area.
    Car Rental: Desks for rental car agencies are situated on the lower level of the terminal building. Represented are Alamo, Avis, Budget, Enterprise, National, Dollar, Thrifty, Payless, and Hertz.
    Airport Taxis: Airport Taxi, Galaxy Cab Co. and Mimi Taxicab operate at the airport and taxis are available from the first flight departure to the last flight arrival every day. Taxis are found in the centre section of the lower level next to the North and South parking garages. Rates vary according to destination and taxi company.
    Facilities: A bank located in the main lobby on the ground floor offers full service banking including foreign currency exchange. Airport facilities also include ATMs, several bars, cafes and restaurants, shops, wifi, conference rooms, an inter-faith chapel and a Visitor's Information Center.
    Parking The hourly lot charges $2 per hour; the daily rate is $12. The economy lot is connected to the terminal via a free shuttle service and charges $7 per day.
    Norfolk International Airport
    Location: The airport is located less than 10 miles (16km) northeast of central Norfolk.
    Time: GMT -5 (GMT -4 from mid-March to the first Sunday in November).
    Getting to the city: There is no public transport offered to Norfolk Airport; however, taxis, shuttles, and rental cars are available and some local hotels offer free shuttle service to guests.
    Car Rental: Rental cars are available from Alamo, Avis, Budget, Dollar, Enterprise, Hertz and National. The rental car offices are located in the Arrivals Terminal.
    Airport Taxis: Taxis are available. The companies include Andy's Cab Co., Black and White, City Wide Cabs, Coastal Ride, Duke Cab Co. East Side Cabs, Eden Cab Co., Norfolk Checker, Oceanside Executive, Southside Cab Co., Waterside Taxi Company Inc., and Yellow Cab of Norfolk.
    Facilities: Airport services include ATMs, a bank, currency exchange, mail drops, conference facilities, a lost and found, USO services, mother's rooms, and a variety of retail shops and dining options.
    Parking Short-term parking is charged at $1 every 30 minutes, with a maximum of $24 per day. Long-term parking is $1 per 30 minutes up to $10 per day.
    Roanoke-Blacksburg Regional Airport
    Location: The airport is located five miles (8km) northwest of Roanoke.
    Time: GMT -5 (GMT -4 from mid-March to the first Sunday in November).
    Getting to the city: The Smart Way Bus stops at Roanoke Airport every one to two hours between 6.35am and 8.35pm Monday to Saturday, making a number of stops between Roanoke and Blacksburg. Some local hotels offer free shuttle transfers for guests.
    Car Rental: Rental cars are available from Avis, Budget, Hertz, Enterprise, and Alamo. Offices are located on the first floor, near baggage claim.
    Airport Taxis: City Cab offers a taxi service from the airport; it is advisable to call to book in advance.
    Facilities: Airport facilities include ATMs, workspaces, mail drops, a pet relief area, a news and gift shop, vending machines, and various shopping and dining options. Disabled facilities are good.
    Parking Parking at Roanoke Airport is free for the first 15 minutes. Short-term parking is an extra $1 per half hour, up to $16 per day. Long-term parking is $1 per half hour, up to $9 per day.
    Website: www.flyroa.com/
    Charlottesville–Albemarle Airport
    Location: The airport is located ten miles (16km) north of Charlottesville.
    Time: GMT -5 (GMT -4 from mid-March to the first Sunday in November).
    Getting to the city: There is no public transport to Charlottesville Airport. However, a dozen local hotels offer free shuttle transfers for guests, and taxis and rental cars are available. A parking shuttle operates in the parking lots day and night.
    Car Rental: Rental cars are available from Avis, Hertz, National, and Budget.
    Airport Taxis: Yellow Cab provides metered taxi service from the airport, but flat rates are charged to a number of destinations; the fare to downtown Charlottesville is about $25.
    Facilities: Terminal facilities include ATMs, conference facilities, and a number of shopping and dining options.
    Parking The first 30 minutes in the short-term lot are free. After that the rates are $2 for the first hour and $1 per 30 minutes thereafter, up to a daily maximum of $13. The long-term lot charges $13 per day, while the economy lot charges $9 per day. There is a parking shuttle for transport to the terminal from outlying parking lots.
    Website: www.gocho.com
    Virginia
    Shenandoah National Park

    Following the Blue Ridge Mountains for 100 miles (161km) through western Virginia, the Shenandoah National Park is a nature reserve where tens of thousands of animals, including deer and black bears, roam among richly forested slopes. More than 500 miles (800km) of hiking trails snake through the area from the azalea-trimmed Skyline Drive, the 105-mile (169km) long road that runs through the park from the Piedmont Plateau, providing wonderful vistas of the Shenandoah Valley from its overlooks. Wildflower Weekend is celebrated in May, and ranger-led tours and programmes are offered between April and October. There are also special activities for kids.

    Website: www.nps.gov/shen
    Shenandoah National Park Shenandoah National Park AlbertHerring, Virginia State Parks staff
    Lexington

    The sedate town of Lexington, 138 miles (222km) west of Richmond in the Shenandoah Valley, contains one of the most picturesque downtown areas of old buildings in America. Tourists visit the town simply for its ambience, and perhaps to pay tribute to Civil War General Robert E. Lee was eventually buried in Lexington along with his famous horse, Traveller. There are many fun outdoor activities and attractions in Lexington, with scenic routes like the Appalachian Waters Scenic Byway, Blue Ridge Parkway and Rockbridge Rides. Geocaching, hiking, canoeing, horseback riding and golf are all popular activities, while local orchards, wineries, breweries and coffee roasteries also offer tastings in the scenic greater Lexington region.

    Lexington Historic District Lexington Historic District Cville dog
    Mount Vernon

    One of Virginia's most popular tourist attractions and the highlight of any historical Virginia tour is the colonial estate of George Washington, Mount Vernon. Since its private purchase in 1858, it's been restored and kept as a historic monument. Consisting of 500 acres (202ha) situated on the Potomac River, the gardens, mansion and other buildings are open to the public, where costumed employees demonstrate life in the 18th century. Visitors can even tour Washington's Tomb, which holds ceremonial wreath-layings at 10am and 2pm. In 2007, Mount Vernon was given permission to reopen Washington's distillery, which now produces its own whiskey. The estate also offers cruises on the Potomac River.

    Mount Vernon Estate, Mansion Mount Vernon Estate, Mansion Martin Falbisoner
    Monticello

    Monticello was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. The distinctive neoclassical building of the main house was designed by Jefferson himself, furnished with a blend of original and replica pieces. Jefferson's time at Monticello is surrounded by controversy regarding his treatment of his slaves. Monticello has several multimedia exhibitions that deal frankly with the president's slave ownership. The outbuildings and gardens are all open to the public, and offer some stunning sights with beautifully-cultivated flower gardens. The gardens are also home to the Center for Historic Plants, a project started by Jefferson himself.

    Monticello Monticello Moofpocket