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Puerto Rico is simply paradise, replete with pristine beaches lined with coconut palms, azure oceans and topped off with a gorgeous tropical climate. A Caribbean island with a difference, Puerto Rico's unmistakable Spanish colonial heritage mixes with its status as a United States territory. Its American customs dovetail nicely with its rich traditional Latin American culture, typified by the fact that hamburgers are as endemic as such island dishes as sancocho.
The second thing that makes Puerto Rico different from other Caribbean holiday Meccas is that it remains largely underdeveloped except for its coastal region around the capital, San Juan. The island's beaches are magnificent and mostly non-commercialised, meaning there's a chance for a more rustic island getaway. They're easily reached from San Juan and its myriad large resorts thanks to the island's relatively compact size.
Exploring Puerto Rico's coast and interior is a delight. Roads are excellent and there are numerous interesting attractions and unrivalled experiences, from one of the world's largest radio telescopes to the magical experience of swimming at night among tiny phosphorescent creatures on the offshore island of Vieques.
Puerto Rico, like many other Caribbean islands, was originally inhabited by Taino Indians until the arrival of Christopher Columbus and the instigation of Spanish rule and settlement. The island's capital and larger towns have preserved their Spanish heritage as tourist attractions, full of old charm and interest.
Along with its breathtaking scenery and wonderfully laid-back island atmosphere, Puerto Rico is a hybrid of old and new, which makes it an intriguing cultural destination rather than just another tropical island paradise.
Puerto Rico is a paradise in many a tourist's mind, and for good reason. A tropical Caribbean destination with cultural interests and lots of character thrown in, Puerto Rico certainly delivers on all fronts.
For those with a penchant for the outdoors, Puerto Rico will not disappoint. The country makes for a brilliant natural playground, offering beautiful islands, undeveloped beaches, caves, and a mountainous region to explore, as well as quaint villages and towns. Surfing and scuba diving are popular choices in areas such as Vieques's bioluminescent bay or on the western shores, while adventuring through the caves in the Camuy Cave Park is thrilling.
Apart from the obvious sun-soaking at the likes of Isla Verde or the Rincon shoreline, holidaymakers will also get the chance to indulge in Puerto Rico's interesting history. The fortress of San Felipe del Morro, built in 1540, makes for a great cultural excursion.
The historic San Juan, with its fascinating colonial architecture dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries, will delight history lovers. For those looking for art and culture, sculptures are a common sight in San Juan and there are wonderful museums such as Puerto Rico's showcase art gallery, Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico.
Home to a diverse and vibrant nightlife scene, as well as many fine restaurants offering memorable fusion cuisines, a night out in Puerto Rico's San Juan will offer tourists some good fun and fantastic gastronomy. What's more, the tropical temperatures in Puerto Rico mean that visitors can enjoy its offerings all year round.
When disturbed, the waters of Mosquito Bay sparkle like a starry sky due to the massive concentration of bioluminescent plankton living beneath the surface. Vieques's Puerto Mosquito holds the Guinness World Record as the brightest of similar bays found elsewhere on the plane. A trip to Bio Bay, as it's locally known, is one of the best tourist attractions in Puerto Rico and well worth the excursion from San Juan. Several tour companies offer kayaking and snorkelling in the magical water, creating a genuinely dreamy environment of ethereal romance. The bioluminescence is at its brightest during the full or near-full moon, and this is considered the best time to visit.
A historic town with a colourful past, San Germán was the second city founded in Puerto Rico by the Spanish. Its mountainous location made it an ideal escape for artists, poets and revolutionaries, and present-day San Germán still carries that lively spirit. It has a number of pretty buildings dating back to the 16th century, including the Porta Coéli (Gate of Heaven) Church and the San Germán de Auxerre Church. Because of these, the town is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. There are also a few interesting museums, including the Lola Rodríguez de Tió Museum and the Ramírez de Arellano y Rosell Museum. San Germán also hosts several religious and cultural festivals throughout the year.
Encompassing about seven blocks, this area dates back about 500 years to the Spanish occupation when it served as a military stronghold that even withstood Sir Francis Drake's armies. The original cobbles on the streets are blue-tinged and were originally used as ballast on Spanish ships. More than 400 restored 16th- and 17th-century Spanish colonial buildings fill Old San Juan, drawing thousands of tourists who walk the narrow, steep streets every day. The old town is enclosed by thick, high walls and features numerous attractive plazas bearing sculptures and memorials.
Built in 1540, the mighty six-level fortress of San Felipe del Morro towers 140 feet (43m) above the sea on San Juan Bay, its 18-foot thick (5m) walls having proved a worthy defence against many an invasion. One of the largest fortifications in the Caribbean, it is a maze of tunnels, dungeons, barracks, lookouts and ramps, offering spectacular views from atop its ramparts. In Old San Juan, stands El Morro's partner in defending the city, Castillo San Cristobal, built in the 17th century to a confusing and intricate modular design.
La Fortaleza was built in 1540 as a fortress to guard the entrance to the San Juan harbour, but later became the official residence of the governor. During the following centuries, the original structure has been remodelled and expanded, with a neoclassical façade being added in 1846 to lend a certain palatial trait to the place. It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is the oldest administrative mansion still in use in the New World.
Puerto Rico's showcase art gallery is housed in a former city hospital in Santurce and offers a permanent and visiting exhibition. The aim is to highlight the island's heritage through the work of local artists, such as Francisco Oller, who studied in France with Cézanne, and Jose Campeche, a late 18th-century classical painter. The museum has been described as a living textbook of Puerto Rico, providing an overview of the island's history through the medium of art. The museum also hosts events such as concerts and festivals throughout the year.
The Caribbean National Forest, 35 miles (56km) east of San Juan, is the only tropical rainforest in the United States National Park system and was named El Yunque by the Spanish. Its 28,000 acres contain about 240 different species of tree and numerous other plants, from tiny, delicate wild orchids to gigantic ferns. Visitors can start their visit at the El Portal Tropical Forest Centre where there are films, exhibits and interactive displays. Maps are available of the dozens of walking trails through the forest, graded according to difficulty. Nearby is Puerto Rico's best beach, Luquillo Beach, famous for its soft white sand and towering coconut palms.
Located on three promontories on the extreme northeast corner of the island, Las Cabezas reserve is one of the most beautiful and biologically diverse natural areas in Puerto Rico. The reserve is close to Fajardo, a major marina, snorkelling spot and diving resort, located about an hour's drive from San Juan. The reserve contains seven different ecological systems, including coral reefs, sandy beaches, lagoons, mangroves and dry forest. It is also home to several endangered species. Boardwalk trails provide easy access to the different natural sites. A restored 19th-century lighthouse, El Faro, is situated on one of the headlands and offers incredible views of its gorgeous surroundings.
The Museo de Arte de Ponce contains one of the largest art collections in the Caribbean. It's housed in a building designed by renowned architect Edward Durrell Stone, who designed the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The impressive building comprises seven interconnected hexagons topped with glass cupolas. Inside its walls are more than 1,000 paintings and 400 sculptures covering classical, ancient and contemporary works. Among the prizes of the collection are works by Velasquez, Rubens and Rodin, as well as a celebrated assemblage of Pre-Raphaelite works and Puerto Rican pieces.
On weekends, a ferry carries visitors from the pier at La Guancha on the Ponce waterfront to Coffin Island, a tiny uninhabited island five miles south of the city. The island, also known as Dead Man's Chest, is part of the Reserva Natural Caja de Muertos natural reserve, thanks in part to its native turtle traffic. There are five pristine beaches, including Playa Ensenada, Playa Larga, Playa Blanca, Playa Chica and the blue flag-designated Playa Pelícano. Beaches on the east side of the island are roped off during turtle-nesting season. What's more, there are a number of spectacular hiking trails throughout the interior of the island and visitors can also explore the 19th-century lighthouse at Caja de Muerto.
The Museo de la Música Puertorriqueña is dedicated to documenting the rich tapestry of the island's music history and pays tribute to Puerto Rican musicians. The museum explains the significance of the romantic danza music style, and the African-inspired popular forms of bomba and plena. It also features displays of Indian, Spanish and African musical instruments, and memorabilia of local composers and performers, all housed in the attractive former residence of the renowned rum-producing Serralles family. Displays are in both English and Spanish.
Perched above the city of Ponce on El Vigia Hill is the restored residence of the Serralles rum-producing family. Designed by Pedro de Castro and built in 1930, the multilevel Spanish-revival hacienda is a beautiful example of the island's post-World War I architecture. The mansion surrounds an elegant courtyard featuring fountains, and is renowned for its splendidly carved dining-room ceiling. The mansion is set in magnificent terraced formal gardens with breathtaking views, making for a wonderful day-trip destination from Ponce.
Dubbed the 'Enchanted Isles', Vieques and her smaller sister Culebra are found off Puerto Rico's east coast, accessible from San Juan by air and from Fajardo by ferry. The two islands' chilled and peaceful populations live lives that enrich rather than impact the islands' natural beauty.
Vieques consists largely of the biggest wildlife sanctuary in the Caribbean, containing beautiful beaches with azure clear waters and pearly white sand. Visitors to Vieques should stay overnight to experience its premier attraction: Bio Bay. On moonless nights, the bay glows with bioluminescence radiating from microscopic organisms called dinoflagellates.
Smaller Culebra is renowned for the clarity of its waves lapping at its shores, thanks to the island having no rivers or streams that may cause runoff. This quiet, unspoilt island offers unrivalled snorkelling and scuba diving in its magnificent encircling reefs, as well as kayak expeditions, hiking trails and bird-watching trips through the Culebra National Wildlife Refuge.
Undoubtedly one of the top tourist attractions in Puerto Rico, a trip to the Casa Bacardi Visitor Centre is a must for travellers to San Juan. Following exile from Cuba in the 1950s, the Bacardi founders moved to Puerto Rico and set up a small rum distillery on the outskirts of San Juan. It now produces a jaw-dropping 100,000 gallons of rum per day and 21 million cases per year. Tours of the Casa Bacardi Visitor Centre last about an hour, as tour guides show visitors around a variety of exhibits and vintage rum stills, as well as explain the company's history. It culminates in a visit to an on-site, classically-styled bar, where a bartender will show you the proper methods of preparing Cuba libres and mojitos.
Isla Verde is San Juan's trendiest area and home to many of its best beach resorts and upmarket hotels. The area's name is inspired by the colour of the water in its bay: a rich green, turquoise hue that proves irresistible to swimmers and divers. The beautiful beach boasts soft sand and the shade of tall palm trees, while visitors can also enjoy world-class spa treatments and a vibrant nightlife. Isla Verde is home to two of the island's best casino hotels and a wide range of raucous clubs and bars with live music. A natural base for well-heeled travellers to San Juan, Isla Verde makes for a luxurious home away from home during your holiday in Puerto Rico.
Also called the Dr Juan A. Rivera Zoo, the Mayaguez Zoo is found off the beaten tourist track in Mayaguez on the east coast of Puerto Rico. It's a world-class establishment and well worth a visit for animal lovers and those passionate about wildlife conservation. Its growing collection of rare and exotic animals include lions, tigers, jaguars, hippos, giraffes and rhinos, as well as many species of tropical birds and large and varied collections of butterflies, amphibians and snakes. Central to the zoo's growth has been a focus on conservation and several native species, including the Andean condor and the Puerto Rican crested toad.
Puerto Rico enjoys a warm, tropical climate with temperatures of around 82ºF (27ºC) throughout the year. The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island.
The dry season is usually from November to May but short showers can be expected throughout the year. The hurricane season is between June and November, but generally there is plenty of warning.
The United States Dollar (USD) is the unit of currency, which is divided into 100 cents. It is often referred to as the 'peso' in Puerto Rico. ATMs and bureaux de change are freely available and all major credit cards and travellers cheques are generally accepted. Banking hours are 9am to 3.30pm.
Spanish and English are the official languages of Puerto Rico.
Electrical current is 120 volts, 60Hz. Two-pin flat attachment plugs are in use.
US nationals: Valid passport or passport replacing documents are required. Visa not required.
UK nationals: Those with UK passports endorsed 'British Citizen' require a passport valid for 6 months beyond the period of intended stay, but no visa is required for touristic stays of 90 days. Those with any other endorsement should check official requirements.
CA nationals: Canadian citizens require a passport valid for period of intended stay. No visa is required.
AU nationals: Australian citizens require a passport valid for period of intended stay. A visa is not required for stays of up to 90 days.
ZA nationals: South Africans must hold a passport valid for period of intended stay and a visa is also required, unless holding a valid US visa.
IR nationals: Irish citizens require a passport valid for the period of intended stay. No visa is required for stays of up to 90 days.
NZ nationals: New Zealand nationals require a passport valid for the period of intended stay. A visa is not required for touristic stays up to 90 days.
All passport holders must have an onward or return ticket and documents necessary for further travel. Entry requirements for Puerto Rico are the same as for the United States of America. When arriving from mainland USA there is no immigration control. It is highly recommended that passports have at least six months validity remaining after your intended date of departure from your travel destination. Immigration officials often apply different rules to those stated by travel agents and official sources.
There are no vaccination certificates required for travel to Puerto Rico. Cases of dengue fever occur annually and mosquito protection measures are essential, while it's best to drink bottled water to avoid stomach upsets. Medical services are good but can be expensive so travel insurance is advised.
Some restaurants and hotels automatically add a 10-17 percent service charge to the bill. If not, a 15 percent tip is expected. Taxi drivers and bar staff also expect tips.
Puerto Rico is still recovering from Hurricane Maria with regular power and communication outages and unstable buildings.
Visits to Puerto Rico are usually trouble-free but travellers should take sensible precautions to avoid petty theft.
Many travel and health authorities classify Puerto Rico as having a high risk of Zika virus transmission. Visitors are advised to seek advice from health professionals before travel.
Social etiquette in Puerto Rico is typically Latin American, with some North American influences such as a stronger sense of female independence, and a toning-down of the machismo ideal. Western visitors to the country should feel comfortable in most social situations.
Hygiene, cleanliness, and personal appearance are viewed as matters of self-respect, so travellers who've been on the road for a little while might consider neatening up their beards or trimming their hair, especially if they want to make a good first impression.
A final, important aspect of Puerto Rican social life, is the concept of relajo. Generally shy of direct confrontation and open criticism, relajo refers to the gentle, joking manner in which Puerto Ricans will bring up uncomfortable issues around each another. Visitors should be aware of this technique, as they may, on occasion, be required to read between the lines to discover what locals are really trying to express.
Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory although the resemblance is closer to Latin America. English is understood by many on the island, but Spanish may also be the language in which business is conducted. Dress codes will vary according to different sectors, but suits are favoured on very formal occasions. Shaking hands is common for both men and women. Business hours are generally 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday, with an hour taken at lunch.
The international access code for Puerto Rico is +1 787 and +1 939. The outgoing code is 011 followed by the relevant country code (e.g. 01144 for the United Kingdom). The outgoing code is not needed for calling the US, Canada, and most of the Caribbean. Mobile phones work throughout the island and local operators use CDMA networks that are not compatible with GSM phones, as used outside North America. Internet cafes are available in most towns and resorts.
Puerto Rico's customs regulations are the same as those for the United States. Visitors over 21 may bring in the following items without paying duty: 200 cigarettes or 100 cigars or 2kg of tobacco; 1 litre of alcohol; and gifts valued up to US$100.
There is a long list of restricted and prohibited items which may not be imported or imported only under license, ranging from fireworks and matches to pre-Columbian sculpture and Cuban cigars. If in doubt, consult your nearest US Embassy for advice. Any merchandise from embargoed countries (Afghanistan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Serbia and Montenegro and the Sudan) may not be brought onto US soil.
The Puerto Rican Tourist Company, Old San Juan: +1 787 721 2400 or www.gotopuertorico.com
United States Embassy, London, United Kingdom: +44 (0)20 7499 9000.
United States Embassy, Ottawa, Canada: +1 613 238 5335.
United States Embassy, Canberra, Australia: +61 (0)2 6214 5600.
United States Embassy, Pretoria, South Africa: +27 (0)12 431 4000.
United States Embassy, Dublin, Ireland: +353 (0)1 668 8777.
United States Embassy, Wellington, New Zealand: +64 (0)4 462 6000.
British Consulate, San Juan: +1 787 850 2400.
Canadian Embassy, Washington DC, United States (also responsible for Puerto Rico): +1 (202) 682 1740.
Australian Embassy, Washington DC, United States (also responsible for Puerto Rico): +1 202 797 3000.
South African Embassy, Washington DC, United States (also responsible for Puerto Rico): +1 202 232 4400.
Irish Embassy, Washington DC, United States (also responsible for Puerto Rico): +1 202 462 3939.
New Zealand Embassy, Washington DC, United States (also responsible for Puerto Rico): +1 202 328 4800.
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