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The second largest country in the Middle East, Oman occupies the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, bordered by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Its topography is varied and dramatic, with rocky mountains and deep water inlets in the north, rolling dunes and salt flats in the central interior, verdant green hills in the southern Dhofar province, and a coastline stretching thousands of miles with magnificent beaches and cosy coves.
In fact, the main reason people travel to Oman is the astounding beauty of the natural landscape. The dramatic coastline of Masirah Island, the rolling sand dunes of the vast Wahiba Sands desert, the prehistoric fossils in the valleys around Buraimi, and the rugged Hajar Mountains are all unforgettable experiences on any Oman holiday.
Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said has realised that tourism is an integral part of his modernisation programme. But thus far, it's the wealthy who are being urged to bring their holiday funds to spend in Oman.
Sightseeing and activities are mainly restricted to Muscat and the southern town of Salalah, famed for its seafood, frankincense trees, and the ruins of the palace of the Queen of Sheba. Accommodation is offered mainly in luxury resort hotels.
Making responsible use of oil revenue, Muscat has taken on the veneer of a prosperous modern Arab city without losing its old world charm and heritage. It features forts, palaces, and other historic sites of interest to visitors, as well as an exciting traditional (bazaar) and some stunning long sandy beaches like Qurum, Bandar Al-Jissah, and Yiti.
Oman is a unique destination, offering visitors myriad exclusive attractions. While not typically considered a holiday spot, visitors to Oman will find a rich and sophisticated culture, as well as incredible and varied landscapes.
The eastern region of the Arabian Peninsula is home to superb natural beauty. Sightseers enjoy exploring the striking beaches, which stretch for miles along the Arabian Sea coastline and provide wonderful swimming spots.
There are also (valleys) to explore, turtle-nesting sites to see, as well as the extraordinary desert dunes to discover. The Al Hajar Mountains are also a scenic wonder where visitors can experience the dramatic vistas of canyons, gorges, and plateaus.
A must-see in Oman is the Nizwa Fort, not far from Muscat, which has stood since the 12th century and is the country's most visited tourist attraction. Those wanting a taste of local culture and an authentic shopping experience should visit the Old Mutrah Souk, the most popular traditional bazaar in Muscat.
Known to be a sophisticated travel destination offering the full array of luxuries and modern amenities, Oman also boasts well-preserved ancient traditions and landmarks.
One of the largest mosques in the world with a capacity of 20,000, the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque is a recent yet architecturally-classic building. The interior is grand and the prayer hall is home to a handwoven Persian carpet weighing over 21 tons on the prayer floor, while an exquisite 46-foot (14m) chandelier hangs from the ceiling. While offering English tours, this remains a religious site rather than a tourist destination so visitors need to be respectful of the rules. Muslims can visit any time of the day, but tourists of other faiths should only come during visiting hours. Visitors are asked to dress modestly and women are required to cover their hair.
Old Muttrah Souk is the most popular traditional bazaar in Muscat. The market is a small maze of narrow alleyways formed by adjoining stalls. Tourists can bargain with stall clerks over the prices of gold and silver jewellery, antiques and other traditional goods. The market has a less forceful air than others, so visitors are free to wander at their leisure without overt pressure from touts. While the Old Muttrah Souk is popular with tourists, locals shop here too, giving authenticity to the market and mixing ornamental souvenirs with household products and delicious food.
Even for those without an interest in Muscat's history, the Bait Al Baranda Museum presents a fascinating story of the region stretching back some 750 million years. The interactive exhibitions take visitors through tectonic plate shifts to recent folk art with an adherence to detail and historical fact. Instead of simply housing artefacts, the Bait Al Baranda's dynamic exhibits often require audience participation. The museum is situated in a remodelled historic building which also periodically features local contemporary art exhibits.
The Al Jalali and Al Mirani Forts were built during the Portuguese colonial rule of Oman during the 16th Century and are now beautiful windows into that era. Situated on either side of a palace, they give a fortified appearance to Muscat's harbour. The forts are examples of traditional architecture, with Al Jalali bedecked with traditional doors, rugs and pottery. Both Al Jalali and Al Mirani have displays of ancient war memorabilia such as armour and weapons. Their strategic position on a mountain overlooking the harbour gives tourists commanding views of the city and Arabian Sea below. Opening times can be fickle but many undeterred tourists enjoy the scenery from outside their walls.
Qasr Al Alam Royal Palace is the working office for Sultan Qaboos. Built in 1972, it is flanked on each side by the ancient Al Jalali and Al Mirani Forts, making an impressive and well-fortified greeting to ships entering Muscat's harbour. Tourists are not allowed inside the classically-styled building for obvious security reasons, but it remains a popular area to walk around and photograph.
An attraction that offers visitors a wonderful taste of local produce is a trip to the Muttrah fish market. Every day, the market turns out a vast selection of ocean-fresh fish, squid and crab to choose from. Visit the neighbouring vegetable market for any other fresh produce required to put together a delicious feast.
With a coastline stretching 1,060 miles (1,700km) along the Arabian Sea, it is unsurprising that Oman boasts a stunning array of beaches offering diving, kite-surfing and jet-skiing. There has also been a huge spike in luxury beach resorts up and down the Oman coastline, offering air-conditioned retreats from the blazing heat. Some of Oman's best beaches include, perfectly set up for family vacationers with picnic areas and shady palm trees, and Qantab, with its sheltered coves and sea-caves. Marjan Beach features small coral reefs ideally suited to novice divers and snorkelers while also boasting a great nightlife, with several restaurants and hotels frequented by expats in Oman. Western swimwear is fine but cover up when you're on your way to and from your hotel or beach resort.
Despite being on the coast, the weather in Muscat can be unbearably hot. The best time to visit the arid climate is between December and March, when the more temperate winter season provides less extreme temperatures with average highs of around 77°F (25°C). February is the coolest month. The rest of the year, temperatures can be well over 104°F (40°C). Sudden rain can cause flash floods, although precipitation is unusual.
The winter months are a delightful time to visit Oman, when the air is clear, the nights are cool, and the daytime temperatures rarely rise above 30°C (86°F). There is some rain, but any showers are short and sharp.
Visitors are guaranteed warm and dry weather in the autumn and spring months, with temperature averaging in the mid-thirties. The summer months are best avoided, when heat soars to 54°C (130°F) and the humidity is stifling.
Traditional Omani cuisine is based around spiced and marinated fish, and lamb and chicken dishes like soups and curries. Typical dishes include mashuai (spit-roasted kingfish with lemon rice), maqbous (spicy saffron-tinged meat and rice) and muqalab (tripe spiced with cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, garlic and nutmeg). Visitors should note that many restaurants are closed during the day in the Ramadan period and plan accordingly by buying food ahead of time or making reservations at hotel restaurants that cater to tourists.
The currency of Oman is the Omani rial (OMR), divided into 1,000 baisa. Foreign currency can be exchanged at banks, exchange bureaux, hotels, and at the airport. Outside banking hours, moneychangers operate in the evenings and at weekends. US Dollars are recommended. American Express, MasterCard, and Visa credit cards are readily accepted in large shops and hotels and by an increasing number of traders in souqs. Most banks in cities and towns have ATMs.
The official language of Oman is Arabic, but English is widely spoken. Hotel staff often also speak German and French.
Electrical current is 220/240 volts, 50Hz. Plugs with rectangular, three-pin flat blades are used.
US nationals: A passport valid for six months from date of arrival is required. Visa required.
UK nationals: A passport valid for six months from date of arrival is required. A one-month tourist visa or three-week business visa is obtainable on arrival for a fee.
CA nationals: A passport valid for six months beyond date of arrival is required. A one-month tourist visa or three-week business visa is obtainable on arrival for a fee.
AU nationals: A passport valid for six months from date of arrival is required. A one-month tourist visa or three-week business visa is obtainable on arrival for a fee.
ZA nationals: A passport valid for six months beyond date of arrival is required. A one-month tourist visa or three-week business visa is obtainable on arrival for a fee.
IR nationals: A passport valid for six months beyond date of arrival is required. A one-month tourist visa or three-week business visa is obtainable on arrival for a fee.
NZ nationals: A passport valid for six months beyond date of arrival is required. A visa is not required for stays of up to a maximum of three months.
All visitors (except those with Gulf Co-Operation Council passports) require a visa to enter Oman. Visas can be obtained on arrival. The visa fee must be paid in local currency (OMR) or by credit card. All visitors require a passport with spare pages, valid for six months, or a year for a multiple entry visa, onward or return tickets and a hotel reservation confirmation or a private residential address with contact details in Oman, and all documents needed for the next destination. E-visas can be obtained before departure at https://evisa.rop.gov.om/, passengers must have printed confirmation.
Visitors with valid visas for Dubai and Qatar generally do not need a visa for Oman, but it is best to confirm this with the nearest embassy before travel.
No vaccinations are required for entry to Oman, except for yellow fever for those entering within six days of having been in an infected area. Visitors should ensure they are up to date on all routine vaccinations.
Avoid mosquito bites, as dengue fever may be a risk, and there is a small risk of malaria in remote areas. Brucellosis is reported, particularly in the south of the country. Health and medical services in the country, particularly Muscat, are of a high standard
Treatment is expensive for foreigners at these facilities, while Oman nationals receive free treatment. Therefore, health insurance is recommended. Food and water in Muscat is considered safe. But bottled water and precautions with unpasteurised milk are advised outside of the city.
A service charge is usually added to bills. However, a 'little extra' of around 10 percent is appreciated.
Like all the Gulf States, Oman is considered to be under a high risk of indiscriminate terrorist attacks, particularly against Western interests. Therefore, vigilance is necessary. Crime, though, is not a problem for visitors, although common sense precautions should be practised.
Rental and company vehicles have been vulnerable to robbery in the southern areas of Thumrait, Marmul, and Nimr. Piracy is considered a threat in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. Women are advised not to wear shorts or scanty clothing in the towns to avoid risk of sexual harassment. It is advised to carry a copy of your passport at all times.
Oman is a predominantly Muslim country and visitors should respect religious sensitivity, particularly in the matter of dress and public conduct. Women, in particular, should wear loose fitting clothes that cover most of the body. Eating, drinking, and smoking in public during the holy month of Ramadan should be avoided, as it is forbidden by the Muslim culture.
Homosexuality is sadly illegal in the country. Importing obscene publications or videos is subject to severe penalties. Alcohol is available only at licensed hotels and restaurants and penalties for driving under the influence of alcohol are drastic. The legal blood alcohol level in the country is close to zero.
The business world in Oman is minute, with a small core of families controlling most of the country's industry and trade. As in most of the Middle East, it is preferable to conduct business face to face and develop good working relations built on trust and friendship. Hospitality is important and visitors will be treated with respect.
It is a good idea to have a basic idea of Omani customs and attempting to speak some Arabic will be appreciated. Business attire is usually formal with suits and ties the norm. Women in particular should dress modestly. English is spoken widely. The working week is normally from Sunday to Thursday, and hours can vary. Most businesses are open from 8am to 1pm and 4pm to 7pm.
The international direct dialling code for Oman is +968, and the outgoing international code 00, followed by the relevant country code (e.g. 0044 for the UK). City/area codes are in use. Local SIM cards are widely available, and free wifi is available in most hotels and some restaurants.
Travellers to Oman do not have to pay duty on 400 cigarettes and 2 litres/2 bottles of liquor per family, provided they are non-Muslim visitors. Meat products officially require an Islamic slaughter certificate.
Videotapes for personal use may be confiscated and sent to Ministry of National Heritage and Culture for verification. Prohibited items include dates (including shoots of date palm), coconut, ornamental palm trees, and parts thereof.
Also prohibited are firearms and toy weapons, swords or knives, and flammable material, obscene reading material and non-canned foodstuffs from cholera-infected areas. Items of value may be exempt, subject to an assessment by a security officer.
Directorate of Tourism, Muscat: +968 2458 8700 or www.omantourism.gov.om
Embassy of the Sultanate of Oman, Washington DC, United States (also responsible for Canada): +1 202 387 1980.
Embassy of the Sultanate of Oman, London, United Kingdom (also responsible for Ireland): +44 (0)20 7225 0001, +44 (1)71 225 0001.
Embassy of the Sultanate of Oman, Tokyo, Japan (also responsible for Australia and New Zealand): +81 (0)3 5468 1088.
Embassy of the Sultanate of Oman, Pretoria, South Africa: +27 (0)12 632 8301.
Consulate of the Sultanate of Oman, Auckland, New Zealand: +64 (0)9 522 4426.
United States Embassy, Muscat: +968 246 43400.
British Embassy, Muscat: +968 246 09000.
Canadian Consulate, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: +966 1 488 2288.
Australian Embassy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabi: +966 (0)1 488 7788.
South African Embassy, Muscat: +968 2464 7300.
Irish Honorary Consul, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: +966 11 488 2300.
New Zealand Consulate, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: +966 1 488 7988.
Shopping in Muscat is a rewarding experience for travellers, with a range of goods available from local (markets) and shopping centres. It is acceptable to ask for a discounts or a 'last price' from independent outlets, while supermarkets and shopping centres or malls display fixed prices. Most shops are open from 9am to 1pm and from 4pm to 9pm, Saturday through Thursday; the Sultan Centre is open 24 hours a day. The Muscat city centre is the primary shopping hub, and nearby Muttrah is also quite popular. Best buys include folk art and craft such as (carpets), wall hangings and pottery, while frankincense and myrrh are also very sought after Omani souvenirs. Silver and gold jewellery and accessories (priced by weight) are also a good buy, as well as the sought-after Amouage perfume, made at a Muscat factory open to visitors. Muscat shopping centres include the Muscat City Centre mall, the Sultan Centre and the Al-Zakher Centre, hosting big-name brands such as Zara and Gap, as well as computer shops, book stores and furniture shops. The Sabco centre is a collection of half a dozen shopping centres that are popular with locals, including a souq-like collection of shops; however the best to visit is the large one in Muttrah, considered one of the best in the Gulf region, where bargaining is expected.
Buses are the cheapest way to get around in Muscat. Modern buses travel major roads with specific bus stops. For more out of the way destinations, Baiza buses are common and zigzag through the back roads effectively, although the buses themselves are sometimes a bit dilapidated. Taxis are widely available and an easy way to get to and from the airport. Insist that the driver uses their meter unless there isn't one, in which case agree on a price before getting into the car. Taxis are expensive but convenient when you can't find a bus or don't want to wait in the sun, while some travellers decide to rent a car and drive themselves around for flexible travel.
There is no shortage of things to see and do in Oman's bustling capital. Visitors can wander the maze-like souqs of Mutrah and wonder at the massive and beautiful palaces, forts, and mosques that serve as reminders of the city's culture and history.
Along with the architectural wonders, visitors can learn about Muscat at a number of museums in the city, including the National Museum, the Children's Museum, the Sultan's Armed Forces Museum, the Omani French Museum and the interactive Bait al Baranda Museum.
Muscat offers a number of active pursuits too, and the numerous tour companies in the city facilitate activities like scuba diving, rock climbing, camel racing, horseback riding, turtle and dolphin watching, trekking and night safaris.
To enjoy the natural beauty of Muscat, travellers can take a walk in any of the city's parks, ranging from small neighbourhood spaces to the enormous Qurum National Park, which boasts beautiful rose gardens and manmade waterfalls, a lake and an amusement park. Another spectacular natural site is Wadi Shab, located about 62 miles (100km) southeast of the city and home to vivid emerald green pools with dramatic caves and cliff faces.
Bahla is an ancient city in the northern part of Oman, not far from Muscat. It was founded at an oasis for caravans and travellers to stop at and rest on their desert journeys, and was the capital of Oman between the 12th and 17th centuries. The famous Bahla Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, dates back to 1,000 BC and remains the city's most popular attraction. Bahla has a rich tradition of pottery and you can still see potters working at their kilns and haggling over their wares.
The Al Hajar Mountains stretch from Muscat, through northern Oman and into the United Arab Emirates. While they initially appear inhospitable and arid, they are becoming an increasingly popular destination for adventure travel. The picturesque range offers dramatic vistas of canyons, gorges and plateaus, while the rich colours of the igneous rock formations make for unforgettable sights. Highway 15 winds up the mountains to the old city of Nizwa, home to an impressive 17th-century fort and an early-morning goat market. Nizwa makes an excellent base to explore the mountains from, including traditional villages, mudbrick towns and date plantations. There are a number of trekking routes ranging from three hours to multi-day hikes, and travellers can visit the famous rose gardens of the Saiq Plateau.
Oman's most-visited tourist attraction, the Nizwa Fort stands as a monument to architectural ingenuity. The fort's underlying structure dates back to the 12th century, though it was completed by Imam Sultan bin Saif al Yaarubi in 1668. Historical interest in the Nizwa Fort is significant, representing a major advancement in military engineering in the early days of mortar-based warfare. Its drum-like tower reaches 98 feet (30m) into the air with a circumference of 118 feet (36m), with 24 openings for mortar fire. Visitors to the Nizwa Fort are allowed to freely explore the area, which consists of maze-like stairways and corridors leading to high-ceilinged rooms and terraces which afford great views of the city of Nizwa and its surrounding plains.
The Sharqiya Sands is a surprisingly biodiverse area of 4,800 square miles (12,500 sq km) near the northeastern coastline. In addition to its natural gifts, the area is home to traditional Bedouin tribes increasingly marginalised as the modern world exerts its influence over Oman. 4X4 vehicles are required to navigate the dunes and summer heat makes the months between April and October a dangerous time to get lost. A far more popular option is to book a trip with one of the ubiquitous tour organisations based in Muscat. Travellers can also enjoy the Sharqiya Sands on the sealed road from Al-Ashkara to Shana'a, which is still unique and memorable.
The capital of the southern-most Omani province of Dhofar, Salalah makes for a wonderful contrast to the hot, dry desert conditions predominating the country's interior. Its monsoon season between June and September, known as the Khareef Season, causes the land to become lush and green, surprising visitors with the sight of herds of cattle calmly grazing in verdant fields. Its cooler climate makes Salalah a great family holiday destination in Oman. Known for its perfume, frankincense trees line the roads and it is unsurprising that most visitors to the region leave with an assortment of fragrances safely packed away in their luggage. Notable sights in Salalah are the traditional al-Hisn Souq, Al Alam Palace and a gorgeous coastline offering wonderful bird watching opportunities and occasional swimming and diving.
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