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    According to legend, an old woman named Penh founded the city of Phnom Penh when she discovered four Buddha images on the Mekong River's banks. She placed the items on a nearby hill and a town grew around them, becoming known as the Hill of Penh (Phnom Penh).

    Sometime later, during its prime, Phnom Penh had a claim to being the loveliest of Indochina's French-built cities. Today, it sprawls at the junction of the Mekong and Tonlé Sap Rivers. Its colonial charm contrasts with its heavy traffic and modern concrete buildings, with visitors enjoying its old French villas, street-side cafes, tree-lined boulevards and majestic Khmer buildings.

    Phnom Penh's wats (temples) and museums also make for interesting adventures. Many visitors find time for sunset cruises on the Mekong and Tonlé Sap Rivers, and shopping at a bustling marketplace. Otherwise, the city's nightlife has a solid reputation, as does its food and café culture.

    The Royal Palace

    The Royal Palace is one of the principal attractions of Phnom Penh and contains the best examples of 20th-century Khmer architecture in the city. It has remained the official residence of the kings of Cambodia since 1860. Set among the perfectly manicured gardens are the exquisite Throne Hall, the Elephant Pavilion, the Royal Treasury and the Chan Chhaya Pavilion, built especially for performances of classical Cambodian dance.

    Although much of the palace is off-limits, the Silver Pagoda with its floor of silver tiles is open to visitors. The internal walls are decorated with frescoes depicting episodes of the Ramayana myth, painted in 1903 by 40 Khmer artists. It is also called the Pagoda of the Emerald Buddha, a tribute to the magnificent baccarat crystal image of the Emerald Buddha that sits in the centre.

    There are other intricately carved Buddha images on display, notably the life-size solid gold statue that stands in front of the pedestal, decorated with 9,584 diamonds. Visitors should remember to dress conservatively and respectfully when visiting the Royal Palace; bare shoulders or legs are frowned upon within the complex.

    Address: 63, Street 348, Sangkat Toul Svay Prey II, Khan Chamkamorn, Phnom Penh
    Opening time: Daily 8am-10.30am, 2pm-5pm.
    The Royal Palace, Phnom Penh The Royal Palace, Phnom Penh Justin Vidamo
    National Museum

    The National Museum is a striking and famous example of the Khmer architectural tradition and houses the country's most important collection of ancient Cambodian cultural material and art. It is made up of four galleries containing relics, sculpture, art and tools covering history from the prehistoric, the pre-Angkorian, the Angkorian and the post-Angkorian periods of Cambodian culture. Arranged in chronological order the already impressive collection continues to grow as new treasures previously hidden from the Khmer Rouge are discovered. Guided tours in English and French cost a bit extra but they are worthwhile as the printed information in the museum is minimal. Photography is not allowed inside the building.

    Address: Preah Ang Eng St. (13)
    Opening time: Daily 8am-5pm
    National Museum National Museum Michael Tyler
    Tuol Sleng Museum

    When the Khmer Rouge came into power in 1975, they commandeered and converted a secondary school into a primitive prison where they detained and tortured anyone suspected of anti-revolutionary behaviour. Between 1975 and 1979, an estimated 20,000 victims were imprisoned in Security Prison 21, or S21 as it was known. The building appears almost exactly as the fleeing Khmer Rouge left it, serving as a testimony to the crimes and atrocities of the organisation.

    It is a tremendously moving and sombre experience, the museum's photographs, instruments of torture and bloodstained walls giving an idea as to the pain and horror borne by the Cambodian people. Thousands of victims were transported from here to the extermination camp outside the city, Choeung Ek (The Killing Fields). There are some first person accounts on display at the museum, despite the fact that, of the estimated 20,000 prisoners incarcerated in S21, there are only 12 known survivors.

    Address: Corner of Street 113 and Street 350, Boeng Keng Kang
    Opening time: Daily from 8am-5pm.
    Website: tuolsleng.gov.kh
    Tuol Sleng Museum Tuol Sleng Museum Christian Haugen
    Central Market (Psah Thmey)

    A trip to Phnom Penh would be incomplete without a visit to Central Market and its quirky architecture. This famous Art Deco building consists of a huge central dome with four wings spilling out into large halls. Psah Thmey contains countless stalls run by more than 3,000 merchants. When the market was first opened in 1937, it was said to be the biggest market in Asia. Visitors can buy almost everything here (make sure to haggle), including souvenirs, clothes, fresh produce, books, flowers, postcards, antiques and a vast selection of jewellery. Its central location is walkable from almost anywhere and is a recognisable landmark from many of Phnom Penh's main roads.

    Address: Neayok Souk, Phnom Penh
    Central market Central market alex.ch
    Foreign Correspondents Club

    A pleasant way to spend the evening in Phnom Penh is on the wide balcony of the Foreign Correspondents Club. It sits on the banks of the riverside overlooking the converging Mekong and Tonle Sap, with spectacular views best appreciated at sunset. The FCC can be more expensive than its neighbours, but the colonial-chic style and atmosphere of the place lends a certain French flair to the experience. The club is one of Southeast Asia's most legendary watering holes, famous for being the meeting place of numerous journalists who covered the last days of Pol Pot's regime.

    Address: 363 Sisowath Quay
    FCC, Phnom Penh FCC, Phnom Penh ronan crowley
    Shooting Ranges

    Amuse your inner warrior with one of Phnom Penh's best carnal pleasures: shooting big guns. Whatever one's taste, be it automatic rifles, rocket launchers, or grenades, they are on offer. The city is known for availability of weapon that are probably deemed unsuitable at home. There are about four well-known shooting ranges in Phnom Penh that are generally run by the military. While there are safety measures in place, it is a remarkably casual and free environment. This comes at a cost, at more than a dollar a bullet, ensuring that Rambo instincts are kept in check.

    Upon arrival you should be able to see all the weapons on display and read a 'menu' detailing what is available and how much handling each weapon costs. Guides generally recommend that you visit the shooting range first if you plan to also see sites like the Killing Fields, as experiencing Cambodia's violent past has been known to dampen the excitement and fun to be had at the range. Most guesthouses and taxi drivers can recommend a good shooting range, but it is best to check online reviews to ensure you are going to a respected establishment. The Cambodia Extreme Outdoor Shooting Range is a favourite with travellers and has been awarded certificates of excellence by review sites like TripAdvisor in recent years.

    Cambodian Shooting Range Cambodian Shooting Range Pithawat Vachiramon
    Cambodia Cooking Class

    Cambodian cooking classes are one of Phnom Penh's most popular tourist attractions. Khmer cuisine distinguishes itself from Thai and Vietnamese cooking through delicate use of spices and aromatic herbs, creating finely-balanced flavours that run a gamut of sweet, salty, sour and spicy. Frizz Restaurant in downtown Phnom Penh prides itself on 'small classes, maximum attention', and space is limited to 16 participants per day. During the full-day lesson visitors will learn to prepare a full-course Khmer meal, and get some useful tips about the blending of spices and the decorative aspects of Cambodian cuisine. Included in the price are transportation to and from the restaurant, a visit to the market to buy ingredients and a full-colour recipe booklet.

    Address: House Number : 67 Oknha Chhun St. (240)
    Cambodian Cooking Class Cambodian Cooking Class Tara Angkor Hotel
    Russian Market

    Not to be confused with the Central Market (Psah Thmay), the Russian Market (Psar Toul Tom Poung) is located south of Mao Tse Toung Boulevard. It's home to a huge mishmash of treasures, such as silk scarves and hammocks, motorcycle parts and curios, as well as souvenirs, jewellery and custom tailors. The market is also a wonderful spot for sampling local food, the fish soup particularly popular. It can get rather crowded and, combined with the midday heat making it unbearably hot inside, it can be a little overwhelming so it's best to go early or later in the evening. Visitors in need of a reprieve from the heat can head to one of the nearby cafés lining the market for a refreshing fruit cocktail.

    Address: Corner of Street 163 and Street 444, Phnom Penh
    Russian Market Russian Market Xiaojun Deng

    Phrase Book

    English Pronounciation

    Phnom Penh's climate can be described as tropical, with hot weather all year round and seasonal monsoons. There are two distinct seasons: rainy and dry. Temperatures during the rainy season (June to October), average between 81°F (27°C) and 93°F (34°C). The dry season (November to March) is characterised by cool months, with temperatures averaging between 70°F (21°C) and 90°F (32°C), and hot months (March to May), which see temperatures range between 81°F (27°C) and 95°F (35°C).

    Winter is the best time to visit Phnom Penh, when the weather is cooler and activities will not be disrupted by rain showers. Roads are also better in the dry season, as they're not muddy.

    Phnom Penh has a great variety of restaurants, ranging from local cuisine to a burgeoning selection of international menus. Generally speaking, eating out in Cambodia isn't too expensive. The main restaurant areas are Street 51, the Riverfront, and the Wat Phnom area (particularly Street 104). Food sections in markets or roadside food carts are decent alternatives to restaurants, especially for simple Cambodian variations of fried chicken and the like.

    Regarding Khmer (Cambodian) cuisine, fare such as Prahok, (pungent, fermented fish paste) can challenging for foreign palates. That said, some local dishes are accessible. The most beloved of these is Cambodia's national dish. Called Fish Amok, it involves coconut milk, chilies, onion, and spinach, all served with rice in banana leaves. For the more adventurous, Khmer staples like deep-fried tarantulas and red tree ants are a must.

    Cambodia's French-colonial history comes through in things like baguettes and frog's legs.

    Phnom Penh International Airport
    Location: The airport is situated six miles (10km) west of Phnom Penh.
    Time: GMT +7.
    Transfer Between Terminals: The two terminals are easily accessible from one another.
    Getting to the city: A bus network departs from Phnom Penh Airport. Bus number 3 goes to the inner city. An airport express bus heads to downtown, and is another option. Otherwise, visitors can take a shuttle train directly from Phnom Penh Airport to the railway station in the city centre. Taxis and motorcycle taxis (tuk-tuks) also head there.
    Car Rental: Avis offers car hire services at the airport.
    Airport Taxis: Taxis are available at the airport. Fares depend on the distance.
    Facilities: Airport facilities include foreign exchange, ATMs, luggage storage, cafes and a food court, several shops, duty-free, and a public phone service.
    Parking Parking is available.
    Chat Preah Nengkal

    Chat Preah Nengkal, the Royal Ploughing Ceremony, is an ancient Cambodian agricultural rite that takes place in front of the National Museum, near the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh. The ceremony is held in early May each year where all banks, ministries, and embassies are closed during the event. Cambodians have a number of traditional rituals for forecasting the weather and determining whether harvests will be fruitful. Chat Preah Nengkal is the ancient royal rite marking the start of the rice-growing season. In the ritual, sacred oxen plough a patch of ceremonial ground so that Brahmins can sow some rice seed. Once the seed is sown, the sacred animals are offered a selection of food, including rice, beans, grass, and rice whisky, and the royal soothsayers make predictions for the harvest based on the appetites and food selection of the oxen. Although the Royal Ploughing Ceremony may not be as festive or exciting as some other Cambodian festivals, it is interesting to see this ancient ritual practiced. If you are in Phnom Penh at the time of the ceremony, it is well worth taking part in the event and celebrations. Before the ritual is performed, there is an impressive ceremonial procession, featuring a ceremonial guard and traditional dancers.

    Venue: In front of the National Museum, near the Royal Palace.
    Royal Ploughing Ceremony Royal Ploughing Ceremony Jeffdkennel
    Water and Moon Festival

    The Water Festival or Bon Om Touk is Cambodia's Mardi Gras and Carnival rolled into one. The traditional festival is an exuberant celebration marked by three days of boat races and partying on the southern end of the Tonle Sap, and indeed all over Cambodia.

    The three-day festival is the biggest and most spectacular event on the Cambodian calendar. Both locals and tourists flock from far and wide to the capital, Phnom Penh, and other hot spots to enjoy the pageantry, partying, fireworks, and boat races.

    Although smaller than the mammoth celebrations in the capital, festivities, and races also happen in Siem Reap, near Angkor Wat. The festival heralds the start of the fishing season and coincides with the reversal of the current in the Tonle Sap River, which flows uphill for half the year.

    Illuminated floats, celebrations of the full moon, and various feasts support the boat races. Rowing has a rich history in Cambodia as it was a vital component of the ancient Khmer civilization's military prowess. Hundreds of boats compete in this annual festival, decorated with the traditional dragon heads, and each bearing up to 40 rowers. The racing of the pirogue boats is fast, loud, and energetic and the atmosphere at the event is jubilant and celebratory, making the Water and Moon festival one of the most popular times to visit Cambodia.

    Travellers should note that in recent years this event has sometimes been cancelled due to low water levels or political tension.

    Boats on the Tonle Sap, Cambodia Boats on the Tonle Sap, Cambodia Jean-Pierre Dalbera

    The city is relatively small and is easy to negotiate on foot. Walking in the midday heat can be uncomfortable, though.

    For safety reasons, visitors should be aware at all times. More specifically, they should try not to display conspicuous wealth or walk alone at night, as bag snatching is a problem.

    Unmetered taxis can usually be arranged through hotels. Bicycle rickshaws (cylos) are widely used, but are best for short distances. Tuk-tuks (motorbikes with small cabins attached to the rear) may be the best option for tourists. That is, English-speaking Tuk-tuk drivers can double as city guides. Passengers should negotiate fares beforehand.

    Phnom Penh's public buses are slower than the other forms of transport on offer. Still, they remove the threat of bag or phone snatching, passengers don't need to negotiate prices, and they're cheap.

    Renting a car may be unwise, given that roads and traffic are bad.

    Phnom Penh is very much a two-day city, with plenty to experience in a short time, but little to keep visitors for longer. The Royal Palace and National Museum are worth a morning to get a sense of the country's rich heritage. As a counterpoint, a trip to the Tuol Sleng Museum and Killing Fields will reveal the terrible atrocities Pol Pot's reign of terror wreaked on the Khmer people.

    In a lighter vein, visitors can shop in the lively Central and Russian Markets, enjoy a fun nightlife, or simply watch the sun set over the river. Travel itineraries should also include some of the activities on offer. River cruises are a must, as are trips to the famous shooting ranges, where guests can try out heavy weaponry. Cooking classes are popular as well. Otherwise, Phnom Penh lends itself to leisurely hours on the riverbanks, soaking up the cafe culture and watching the world go by.

    Travellers looking to explore the region a little more can head to Sihanoukville's gorgeous beaches, unwind in the resort town of Krong Kep, or see the Mekong's Irrawaddy river dolphins.

    Choeung Ek (The Killing Fields)

    The Cambodian genocide during the late 1970s ranks as one of the great horrors of modern history. Under Pol Pot, an estimated 1.7 million people were either ruthlessly slaughtered by the Khmer Rouge, or died of starvation in the communal fields. Choeung Ek was the extermination camp where the prisoners from S21 (now the Tuol Sleng Museum) were executed. Also known as the Killing Fields, after the movie of the same name, this football-field-sized area contains the mass graves of about 20,000 people.

    A tall Memorial Stupa has been constructed to commemorate the dead with more than 8,000 human skulls displayed behind the glass. At the entrance, a handwritten sign in Khmer and English summarises the atrocities perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge. As a reminder of the reality of this great tragedy, human bones are still frequently unearthed by heavy rains in the area, and many of the tour guides have personal stories to tell about their experiences during Pol Pot's reign. A visit to the Killing Fields is harrowing and perhaps not suitable for children, but remains one of the most popular tourist attractions in Cambodia.

    Address: Just over nine miles (15km) southwest of Phnom Penh
    Opening time: Daily 8am-5.30pm
    Skulls at Choeung Ek Skulls at Choeung Ek istolethetv
    Ratanakiri

    The slightly inaccessible Ratanakiri Province sits along the border with Vietnam. Visitors to the area enjoy exploring its stunning natural beauty of lush tropical rainforests, volcanic lakes and pristine waterfalls, along with abundant wildlife such as Asian elephants, monkeys, guar and a kaleidoscope of endangered and exotic birds.

    One of the key tourist attractions is Yak Loum, a perfectly round crater lake with crystal-clear waters, surrounded by dense jungle foliage. The lake is great to swim in and a relatively short distance from the town of Banlung. Also close by is the lovely Lomphat Wildlife Sanctuary, which is also home to number of endangered species including banteng, tiger, dholes and sun bear, as well as leopards, Eld's deer, sambar deer, muntjacs and wild pigs

    Ratanakiri is cooler than most of the country and a favourite among eco-tourists. But visitors should be aware that roads in the region aren't great, turning very muddy during the wet season and covered in thick red dust during the dry season. Boats serve as popular alternative modes of transport for scenic trips.

    Yak Loum Lake Yak Loum Lake Ethan Crowley
    Sihanoukville

    While this beach town isn't nearly as famous as those found along Thailand's pristine coast, it does make a great tourist getaway. Sihanoukville is the country's only deep water port, making much of the town industrial and unattractive to tourists. But the coastal city is surrounded on three sides by the Bay of Thailand and there are several secluded tourist beaches with all the requisite trappings: dishevelled beach bars, guesthouses, and smiling hawkers. As there isn't much to do in town, it is worth the extra money to stay in the quaint beachside accommodation.

    Daytime activities include swimming, fishing, snorkelling, scuba diving, and boat trips to the nearby islands. There are also several Buddhist temples to be explored in the area and the Ream National Park is only 11 miles (18km) away. Most hotels and guest houses offer transport and day passes for visiting the National Park. Nightly beach barbecues prepare great food and offer cheap beer. The government is said to have plans to develop the area for larger resorts which may well ruin its laid-back beach charm in years to come. Regular daily buses provide a three to four hour journey to and from Phnom Penh, along Cambodia's best road. There is also a ferry connecting to Koh Kong, the Cambodian/Thailand border.

    Address: 115 miles (185km) southwest of Phnom Penh
    Sihanoukville, Cambodia Sihanoukville, Cambodia sarahjadeonline
    Krong Kep

    From Phnom Penh, a great excursion is the formerly lavish resort town of Krong Kep. Once a famous high-society destination called The Pearl of the Orient, Kep is now more of a rustic off-the-beaten-track fishing village. The Khmer Rouge wreaked havoc on the town, but the ruined villas of the rich now add to Kep's crumbling mystique. A beautiful coastal road, beautiful beaches, jungled mountains and the nearby Rabbit Island ensure that Krong Kep continues to draw visitors to its shores.

    Kep, Cambodia Kep, Cambodia Vanina W.
    River Dolphins

    The Irrawaddy river dolphins inhabit a 118-mile (190km) stretch of the Mekong River. These odd but delightful creatures are in danger of extinction, with recent population estimates as little as 85, but are fortunately now protected. They are sometimes spotted from the riverbank but many tourists opt to rent small boats to get closer to them. The local oarsmen retain a healthy distance from surfacing animals but viewers can get close enough to recognise individual characteristics and see the famous dolphin smiles.

    Address: Kratie, about five or six hours from Phnom Penh
    Kratie, Cambodia Kratie, Cambodia Oliver Townend
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